[M80604] [译文]苹果iPhone不为人知的秘密:苹果公司怎样改变了整个手机产业界

编者:今天重新去译言网,结果发现物非人非。当年我在译言网翻译了几篇文章,都算长文(主要是各大公司的财报和关于iPhone的这篇文),算是自己辛劳的结果。本意是在这个博客网站建立之后,便将文章迁移过来。结果发现曾经勤力做翻译的处处网站内容已经烟消云散。看来毕竟还是自己筹建的网站较为靠谱,从备份到运营多少还有些掌控权。

想起来,从最早的博客中国,到后来的weblogger,再到blogbus,不仅经历了关站和闭站,而且其网站风格也不停的变化,很多令人不爽快的事情。

回过头来说说这篇曾经翻译过的文章,在iPhone发布后的次年,我在wired杂志上看到了文章,觉得写得很赞。当时是英文版本,加上我自己正好在译言网注册了账号,所以有志于翻译人生的第一篇长文。那是时候,英文阅读能力还欠佳,部分内容是连蒙带猜,不过重新读来,大意是没问题的。

这么多年来,关于苹果公司的解读文章很多,这篇文中的很多相似观点都快被说烂了,但是放在2008年,第一次看到清新可人素材的文,还是挺兴奋的。

当时译言网发布了中文版本以后,看到很多人阅读和转载,而且一些朋友还提出里面的注释太过于啰嗦,影响阅读体验。诚然,欣然致歉。

既然译言网中当年的内容已经无法访问,只要转到其它转载过的网站将文弄过来。因为都是复制粘贴,不存在内容丢失的状况吧。


苹果iPhone不为人知的秘密:苹果公司怎样改变了整个手机产业界

在TI,Nokia等大厂主导的手机世界里,苹果如何能够”绝地而起”?这种商业成功的背景是什么? 一家Mac桌面电脑厂商和iPod供应商是如何做到进入一个新领域并且获得空前的成功的?这就是本文要告诉你的故事

Apple公司研发总部的一段对话

工程师:抱歉,Demo样机感觉不怎么好!容易死机等等

主管:重新试验,再来一次,

2006年秋天的一个早上,差不多算是一年多前, Jobs(Coptue注:乔布斯:apple公司总裁)正在为200多个研发iPhone的工程师分配工作任务。在公司的会议室里,Jobs盯着眼前的这部iPhone原型机,这部样机现在存在的问题并不是说有多少Bug,而是根本无法使用,比如打电话的时候无缘无故的断线;电池充电实验时发现电还没充满就自动停止充电,程序经常死机,很不稳定等等。问题多的似乎数不过来。快结束样机Demo会议的时候, Jobs平静的看着会议室里的一群人,缓缓地说:“如果这个东西还不行,那么我拿什么去卖?”

对于开会的资深工程人员和主管们来讲,Jobs在会上”骂爹骂娘”大发脾气,对着员工大声吼叫是件正常的事情,反而Jobs平静的语调使得与会人员感觉毛骨悚然。曾经参加会议的一位工程师说:“那是我在apple公司所参加的会议里面——为数不多的感觉寒意逼人的一次会议”

问题的严重性显而易见,大家都知道Apple公司每年都会在Apple的总部召开一次Macworld大会,向记者和终端消费者发布最新的产品。再过几个月,Macworld就要开幕了。自从Jobs 1997年重新返回到苹果公司,他就喜欢在Macwrold上发布公司最重要的新产品,而且苹果的Fans们以及业界的观察者也期望在Macworld上看到激动人心的产品。问题是Jobs已经决定将2007年Macworld大会上最重要的一个产品:苹果最新的操作系统Leopard推迟发布,如果苹果还不能发布另外一个重要的产品iPhone的话,那这个Macworld将会非常失败,对于苹果公司来讲,一次失败的Macworld发布会导致的后果是责难,股价下跌等一系列让人头痛的问题。

(coptue注:其实很搞笑的一件事情是Apple公司没有正式参加过CES大展,倒是CES展会和Macworld大会的时间靠的比较近,就几天,那些刚刚参加CES大展的记者急匆匆地搭乘飞机赶往苹果的总部以求看到苹果在Macworld上发布的最新产品,在2007年Macworld的前夕,从Las Vegas前往California的飞机爆满,都是因为大家赶着去苹果公司,今年2008年度CES也是如此,不过今年Macworld上可能不会发布太令人惊叹的产品)。

对于手机界来讲,这个4.8盎司重的长条形铝合金质感的手机无疑是产业界的王者,不仅开启了产业的新模式,从运营商处获得分成,而且对于制造商,开发者以及终端消费者都给与全新的概念和模式。

那么与苹果公司合作的AT&T是怎么想的呢?

(coptue注:不用我多讲AT&T美国电报和电话公司,目前是美国最大的移动和固定电话运营商,打个比方,就是中国电信和中国移动的结合体。苹果在销售iPhone时,和AT&T签订了排他性协议,也就是说iPhone只支持AT&T的蜂窝移动网络)

当时在经过一年多的秘密会议后,Jobs终于和AT&T下属的子公司Cingular达成共识,签订了排他性协议。此协议还包括将iPhone销售额的10%给与AT&T公司。不过这个数额并不大,还不到苹果iTunes收入的一个零头。当然苹果公司并不傻,它得到的回报更大,比如它要求AT&T公司花费数以百万美金以及数千的人力来开发一种新技术,叫做Visual Voicemail,更为“可怕”的是,Jobs要求和AT&T签订全球第一个收入风向协议,即苹果公司可以从AT&T处获得每个用户每个月10美金的分成回报。这种协议在通讯产业运营商和终端制造商间能够达成是不可思议的(coptue注:难怪中国移动和苹果谈判失败,对于中国移动这样的无耻垄断公司,可能碰上了一个更牛的公司。我个人来讲这是趋势)

从AT&T和苹果公司的协议可以看到,苹果公司获得了整个产业链的控制权,包括设计,生产,制造,市场。Jobs不可思议的完成了这些看起来Mission Impossible 的任务,将自己的想法卖给全球最大的最固执的运营商,而且还分成过来。嗯~~,在达成这些协议后,Jobs要做的是就似兑现自己的承诺,按时推出产品。

对于研发iPhone的工程师就比较辛苦,在Jobs可 怕的未发飙会议后的三个月,可能是这些工程师职业生涯里最辛苦的三个月,尖叫声,欢呼声经常从走廊中传出,记录着这些苦闷和快乐的历程。这些工程师过着三 点一线的生活,在经历了整夜的代码讨论会议,离开工作区,稍微补一下睡眠后再次回到工作中来。一个产品经历因为过于用力的关门,导致门锁反锁而出不来,她 的同事们花了一个小时用个棒球棒才将门锁敲坏才将她“解救出来”,这算是研发过程中的趣谈吧。

经过Jobs强力的Push推进,终于在2007年Macworld之前的几周,一款稳定可靠的原型机可以Show给AT&T公司。在2006年12月中旬,Jobs在Las Vegas的Four Seasons酒店会见了AT&T的老板Sigman先生。在会见中,Jobs得意地Show了iPhone绚丽的屏幕,强大的Web浏览器以及激动人心的用户交互界面。租后的结果呢,Sigma先生,这个沉默寡言的德州保守派典型代表,居然感情大法,称iPhone手机为”The best device I have ever seen”。当然啦,到底还说了些什么我们无从得知,这些还是相关知情人士告诉我们的,因为AT&T 和苹果从来没有透露过相关的新闻。

Jobs在2007年Macworld大会(1月)上演示了iPhone之后的六个月后,2007年6月29日,iPhone开卖。在当时的发布会上,分析家预测截止到2007年底,iPhone至少能够卖出300万部,这个数字非常惊人,即便是最畅销的智能手机与之相比都非常逊色。嗯~~,它也算是苹果公司最赚钱的东东,根据评估,大约每台销售390美金的iPhone,苹果公司净赚纯利80美金。这个数字还不包括苹果从AT&T获得的两年一个iPhone用户240美金的分成(coptue注:记得哦,每个月每个AT&T iphone用户要分成给10美金给苹果,之前又说过)。同时,购买iPhone的人群里面有40%是AT&T的新客户,而且使用iPhone手机的人会大量的使用移动网络的数据通讯,尤其是纽约和San Francisco这样的城市里,所以AT&T也爽的很,这是个双赢的生意。

但是所有的一切影响里面,除了iPhone给苹果和AT&T公司带来的巨大财富外,最大的影响力在于iPhone给整个美国每年110亿美金的手机市场的冲击。为什么呢?想想看,几十年来,无线运营商一直把终端设备制造商看作是“奴隶”,比如规定终端手机制造商每年的生产量,产品有什么功能,成本必须低于多少(Coptue注:呵呵~~~,按照美国的运营商老大模式,那些做手机的还真是奴隶,没有发言权,因为美国的手机销售模式是绑定式的,不像中国这么“开放”,只要支持GSM模式,用联通还是移动都可以。在美国,用AT&T的网络必需用AT&T绑定的手机)。

在美国,手机被看作是便宜的,可被运营商随意支配的仅适用于运营商专用网络的工具而已。但是iPhone的出现,打破了这种平衡的局面,运营商们必须认识到这款手机,这款价格非常昂贵的手机正在赢得消费者的认同而且还在创造巨大的利润。现在,很多终端制造商都试图仿效类似苹果这样的合约,努力研发一款能为消费者体验认同的手机。难怪来自Piper Jaffray的安全专家Michael Olson说:“iPhone已经改变了运营商和制造商的平衡模式”。

iPhone,来自iPod刚刚发布后的忧患构思产品

在2002年苹果刚刚发布iPod后,Jobs就已经在考虑研发一款手机。他看到数以百万计的美国人开始使用集成功能的手机,比如Blackberry(Coptue,这个概念我就不解释了吧,不知道的自己上网查查),那么对于MP3播放器,自然的,消费者认为应该集成到同一种设备中去。(Coptue注:瞧瞧人家Jobs,iPod刚开始卖,就想着下一个东西,钦佩啊啊~~,牛人)。Jobs预见到一种未来,就是手机通话和email等功能等最终融合到一起,最终来挑战iPod的统治地位,为了保护他创立的iPod新产品线, Jobs明确到他必须进入到无线产品市场。

想法如此显而易见,障碍也是显而易见(coptue注:一句谚语不知道如何翻译,原文是 If the idea was obvious, so were the obstacles)。但是的数据通讯网络(也就是蜂窝移动网络,2.5G)速度缓慢,还没有为手持式的网络设备应用做好准备。同时,iPhone需要苹果公司为其设计一款全新的操作系统,因为iPod上的OS没法不做到管理负责的网络和图形应用,而一款精简版本的MAC OS X对于一款手机来讲又显得体积过于庞大。此外,在手机市场,苹果公司也面临着强大的竞争对手,比如在2003年,很多消费者认同Palm公司的Treo 600,这款手机融合了PDA和Blackberry功能。当然Palm这款手机的成功也再次证明了Jobs的想法,就是消费者对于这种融合型产品的需求是迫切的。此外也可以看到,市面上已经出现了这样的产品,对于苹果来讲也是有压力和门槛研发效应的。

接着的难点时运营商,(coptue注:之前说过美国的典型运营模式是绑定模式,没有运营商大佬的口谕,那家制造商也不敢造次,包括Nokia和Motorola这样的厂商),Jobs知道这些运营商对终端手机产商what to build,how to build有决定权,他们将硬件当作是一辆利用他们专用数据通讯高速公路的行驶汽车而已。对于Jobs这种行为诡异的人来讲,这一点是不能容忍的,他决定要打开局面,自己要设计适合消费者的手机而不是运营商去决定。

到了2004年,苹果的iPod产品大卖,这时候其实产品线也最脆弱。为什么呢?因为iPod线已经占有苹果总收入的16%,但是3G电话的流行以及Wi-Fi手机的逐渐显现,再加上存储单位价格的急剧下降(Coptue注:比如Nand flash的容量增长快,价格下降快),以及竞争对手音乐商店的开张,使得iPod的长期统治地位受到了影响。

因为到了2004年的夏天,当Jobs一边公开表态不会研发苹果手机时,他其实已经在手机产业里勤奋耕耘。为了避开和运营商的直接谈判,他找到了Motorola(Coptue注:为什么找Motorola?当然这家公司的话语权更大一些嘛!行业老大自然说话分量重,再加上苹果自己做手机没经验,所以找Moto是稳妥的做法)。似乎这好似顺理成章的事情,Motorola这家手机制造商当时发布了最流行的RAZR产品(coptue注:就是V3, V8等手机),而且Jobs也认识当时Motorola的CEO: Ed Zander先生。当时两人就签订了合约,由苹果公司研发音乐方面的软件,而Motorola和运营商Cingrlar(AT&T)来设计手机硬件。

当然,Jobs的计划是假设Motorola能够制造出一款成功的RAZR手机继任者,但是不久他发现这是一个幻想,结果很可怕。为什么呢?因为三家公司经常在一些小事情上讨价还价,完全没有抓住重点,比如讨论在电话里到底存多少首歌曲,辩论歌曲怎样下载到手机中,甚至争论每家公司的logo和名字如何印制到手机上去,或者如何显示三家公司的logo (Coptue注:天啊,真有意思,是不是大公司都这么合作,吹毛求疵??)。当第一款原型机在2004年年终研发出来时,Jobs傻眼了,这个东西太难看太丑。

Jobs在2005年九月发布了这款所谓苹果手机,仍然是沉稳的论调并且吹嘘这时款” An iPod shuffle on your phone” (coptue注:其实他心里清楚这个烂东西能卖钱吗??!!)。Jobs心里很清楚,他手里拿的是个哑弹,一个失败的产品,消费者肯定会憎恨这个东西。新推出的这个所谓ROKR,对于美国手机市场来说,简直是个笑柄,没办法直接download歌曲到手机中,而且最多也只能存储100首歌曲。 Wired杂志在2005年末对其表示失望,并在封面中评论:Jobs先生,你就将这个破东西叫做未来的手机??(coptue注:Wired杂志真够损的,不过话说回来,那款手机确实太烂)

哈哈~~ Apple Touch

这样算来苹果研发过两款音乐手机,一款是ROKR,2005年Motorola为其研发的那款破手机,当然最初这样做也表达了对运营商和传统制造商的尊重。另外一款就是去年2007年6月发布的iPhone,全新的革新性的一款手机。

其实在ROKR手机刚刚生产时,Jobs就意识到苹果公司不得不独立研发一款属于自己的手机。在2005年2月,他就和Cingular(AT&T)讨论过一些Motorola未参与的合作事宜。在当时市中心的Manhattan Hotel的秘密会议中,Jobs就向Cingular的高层主管罗列他的想法和计划,当时AT&T的老板Sigman先生也在。Jobs向Cingular表达了自己的想法:苹果有能力有技术设计一款革新性的手机,绝对是开创新光年式的设计和用户体验。借此机会苹果也想成为事实意义上的一家手机运营商。

Jobs有资格自信和说这些话,谈这些条件。因为苹果的硬件工程师已经花费了一年(从2004年开始)时间研究Tablet PC上的触摸屏技术,并且认为他们也可以为一款手机设计相似的触摸屏。此外,也要多些ARM11芯片的发布,使得处理器足够快并且有能力将手机,计算机和ipod功能融合到一起。而且无线通信费用也降得足够便宜使得消费者可以接受这样的网络设备。事实上,像Virgin那样的公司已经开始出售类似的设备。

在Jobs和Cingular的会面后,Cingular的老板Sigman先生和他的团队对iPhone的概念很感兴趣。为什呢?对于Cingular这样的公司来讲,和其它的运营商一样,也希望消费者使用它们提供的移动电话进行更多的无线数据消费,也就上网浏览Web。传统的语音服务逐渐在萎缩,增长力有限;价格战打得一塌糊涂,毛利在下降。而iPhone这样的手机,如果真如其承诺的那样,能够透过Wi-Fi从网络上download音乐和视频,肯定能够刺激消费者使用大量的数据通信。而Data数据通信而不是语音通讯,正是运营商未来的主要增长点。

此外,Cingular这样的公司也看到无线通讯商业模式也不得不转变。运营商将自己的网络看作宝贵的资源,将手机看作是工具性的日常产品的策略虽然比较成功,但是这种绑定模式的资助性行为,使得消费者很容易低门槛的更换运营商,从而使得长期的用户合约减少,稳定的收入无法得到保证,而且竞争加剧。(Coptue注:这段话应该比较容易明白,绑定式的销售模式对于消费者是件好事,反正不想用就换,运营商也照样送便宜的手机用)。而且,无线数据业务大家都有,对于消费者来讲不同家的服务业没有什么不同。所以对于运营商最大的挑战在于很难再建立消费者对运营商的品牌忠诚度,倒是相互价格战打得要命,将客户抢来偷去的。(Coptue注:呵呵,看来向消费者“行贿”便宜的手机最初还有效果,到后来就没多大效果,吃力不讨好啊)。所以Sigman先生和他的团队也想要一款手机,其它家没有独此一家,消费者喜欢的要命但只能用我Cingular的运营网络。想想看,设计这个东东,谁能比苹果的Jobs做的更好??

对于Cingular来讲,苹果的野心非常大,非常急迫,也非常让自己头痛。好处也是有的,和iPod的制造商合作也同样能够让自己的品牌带来诱惑力和感染力。此外,结论也显而易见,如果自己不和苹果合作,苹果自然会找其它的运营商合作,而且那些运营商可能比自己还想签订这个合约。不过Cingular的优势在于:全美还没有哪一家运营商能够像Cingular这样能够提供足够的灵活性和控制力给Jobs,所以Sigman觉得自己胜卷在握,但是需要说服他的继任者以及董事会成员来批准这个合作约定。

Sigman先生是对的。对于苹果和Cingular来讲,两者交易是最好的选择,但是免不了讨价还价。这种谈判持续了大约一年的时间,Sigman先生和他的团队一直重复他们的出价太高,需要降低一点;而同时Jobs则和Verizon运营商接洽,后者非常急于拿下这一单。呵呵,如此长的谈判是需要的,很难责怪他们不能快速下决定,毕竟很多年来,运营商透过自己的私有网络主导客户和运营商,而这次的谈判,苹果要求那么多,要求了那么多控制权,对于Cingular这样超大的自傲的运营商来讲是件很难妥协的事情。最终Cingular妥协了,放弃了自大的想法,将自己的网络变成一条应用管道而不再是自认为的有绝对控制力的专有高贵网络。怎么理解呢?以前Cingular认为自己不仅提供通信的管道,同样提供内容,掌握足够的控制权,而如今在和苹果的合约中,它将自己仅仅定义为沟通管道而非内容的提供商。Sigman先生的团队下了一个赌注:iPhone的合作面世所提高的数据通信流量的价值和回报远远高于自己控制内容所能得到的回报。因为这个收入大于失去的赌注,Cingular决定合作。

对于Jobs来讲,可不会等到最后的协议签订完毕后才开始研发。在2005年万圣节前后,也就是最终协议签订前的8个月里,他就要求工程师们全力推进产品研发。他认为,即便是和Cinigular的谈判非常艰难,但是工程师们应该专心研发和对付设计上的挑战。对于苹果这样最初进入手机市场的公司来讲,最大的问题是使用何种操作系统。自从2002年苹果想要退出第一款手机的想法显现,移动产品所使用的芯片性能越来越强,甚至可以支持任何一款强大的苹果Macintosh操作系统。尽管如此,还是需要精简和重新软件代码,记得iPhone的代码只有100多Mbytes,而苹果的OS X可是要1G多的代码和数据。

在工程师开始设计iPhone之前,Jobs和他的高级团队不得不下决定如何解决操作系统的问题。工程师们仔细的研究Linux,这款操作系统已经被成功的移植到手机上面,但是Jobs拒绝使用这套操作系统,一方面Jobs本人不喜欢别人开发的软件,另一方面,他们研发出的Linux原型机,虽然也内建了iPod功能,并且使用了圆环触摸屏作为拨号器,但是这款原型机仅仅能拨打电话,却不能让用户有很好的上网体验。因此,在2006年初,苹果的工程师决定放弃linux,并且也放弃他们长达一年多的针对OS X操作系统在Intel芯片上的精简和移植,并且决定重现为iPhone开发操作系统,和OS x类似的操作系统。

关于iPhone上使用何种操作系统争论了很久,大部分苹果的高级管理人员都知道这一点。他们决得自己低估了对于进入手机市场的评估,比如天线设计,辐射,以及网络传输模型。为了确保iPhone的小天线能够高性能得工作,苹果公司花费数百万美金架设了专门的实验室。为了确保iPhone产生的射频辐射在规定的范围内,工程师们专门建立了几个仿真人类头部的模型,其中包括仿真大脑的粘状物,来测定辐射对于大脑的影响。为了准确地评估iPhone在无线网络中的灵敏度等参数,苹果的工程师至少花费了数百万美金购买了几十种测定参数的设备和仿真系统。很多之前的设计经验都没有起到什么作用,比如iPhone的屏幕设计,根本就无法参考之前的iPod的设计,所以一切得重来。Jobs亲自参加测试,他在试用原型机时发现将iPhone放在口袋里可能会被划伤屏幕,所以他要求制造屏幕的材质不要选用类似iPod上的硬纸塑料,而是最终选用玻璃。研发花费如此高昂,正如一位业内人士与此,为了研发iPhone,苹果公司大约花费了一亿五千万美金的研发费用。

自始至终,Jobs确保了这款产品研发的高度保密性。在公司内部,项目名称为P2,是Purple 2的缩写。记得,当时第一款motorola为其制造的ROKR手机被称之为Purple 1。研发团队分散到好几个地方,比如Cupertino, California某地,甚至是大学校园里。当苹果的高级主管前往Cingular沟通会面时,他们以Infeneon(英飞凌)工程师的身份来伪装自己,呵呵,他们也确实用Infeneon的Transmitter作为iPhone里面的元件用。研发iPhone的硬件和软件team是完全分开的。搞软件的工程师所研发的硬件的确是iPhone,但是其中灌装的软件确是伪装的,连他们自己都不知道,自以为是真正的iPhone软件。而搞软件的工程师也是如此,虽然他们在开发真正的iPhone软件,但是所用的硬件却装在木盒子里,搞得他们以为这就是未来的iPhone,居然还是木头外壳的。其实到2007年1月,当Jobs在Macworld大会上真正Show出iPhone时,很多研发的工程师才搞清楚原来这才是真正的iPhone,其实当时之前大约不到30给资深人员才知道产品最终的模样和状况。

对于iPhone,很多人的评价是“简直是天造神物”,最初售价非常高,居然高达599美金,后来才降到399美金。手机只能在AT&T慢吞吞的EDGE 2.75G网络下运行。用户不能搜索Email,以及录像。而且浏览器也不支持JAVA和Flash功能。

但是这些都不是问题,iPhone的面世打破了原来以无线运营商为中心的状况,开创了新纪元,为消费者,开发人员,以及制造商,甚至为运营商自己创造了更多价值。

对于消费者来讲,得到的不再是运营商附送的廉价的无特点用起来也不舒服的手机,就iPhone给消费者的印象来讲,用户体验非常棒,花大价钱也觉得值得。而且,iPhone也掀起一股开发浪潮,让iPhone变得更为强大。在2007年2月,Jobs发布了SDK套件来方便开发人员开发更为强大的应用程序。

对于制造商来讲,iPhone 的创举为他们也出了口气,彻底打破了原来以运营商为核心的商业模式。如今,那些看到Cingular借iPhone手机掠夺大量市场份额和利润的运营商们,也在努力的寻找相似的有竞争力的产品,而且非常愿意和有实力的终端厂商合作,他们也愿意放弃很多权利来达成合约取得更大的回报。从而制造商可以在产品设计中获得更多的控制权,不再是受运营商的控制。

对于应用软件开发人员来讲,他们也会获得更多的运营商支持,从而将自己撰写的软件嵌入到手机中,在运营商获得流量和利润的同时,自己也获得丰厚的回报。比如T-Mobile和Sprint公司就Google Android操作系统签署了协议。而Verizon公司,美国最大的运营商之一,在2007年11月宣布向所有制式上相容的手机开发自己的网络,不再坚持自有网络配专用手机的策略(coptue注:呵呵,从这点看,中国移动和联通还挺“开放”的嘛!!)。而AT&T公司也随后发布了相似的声明。可以预期到,最终大家将获得一种全新的无线体验,任何应用可以工作在任何设备以及任何网络中,互通性得到极大保证。

也许可以说运营商的噩梦在逐渐变为现实,正是因为苹果的iPhone手机, 在给终端消费者,开发人员,制造商带来好的改变同时,也将无线网络变成一种通信管道而不是产业的控制者。其实从长期讲,也正因为这样的革新,对于营运商来 讲并不是损失,而是获得了更大的价值。这个道理很简单,因为消费者愿意花费更多的时间在手机上面,所以会产生更多的数据流量。根据AT&T的市场主管Paul Roth的阐述,目前AT&T正在开拓更多的产品和服务,比如手机银行等等,来充分利用iPhone的价值。Roth说:”我们正在差异化市场”。换句话说,运营商因为iPhone产生的恐惧也很明白告诉他们最终要的是什么,革新,创造更多的价值而不是封闭,逃避趋势。也许这也是Jobs想要告诉我们呢的。

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